[6] As a boy, Allen already excelled at quoting the Bible and was known for disputing the meaning of passages. The neighbor was very angry and the courts made Allen pay a fine of 10 shillings to replace the pig. The name "Ticonderoga" was derived from an Iroquois word meaning "between two waters," or "where the waters meet.". While they had not always been close, and Allen's marriage had often been strained, Allen felt these losses deeply. He returned to Vermont and was made major general in the Vermont militia. He was the first child of Joseph and Mary Baker Allen. [22] He lived in Northampton, Massachusetts in the spring of 1766, where his son Joseph was born and where he invested in a lead mine. They eventually decided to collaborate on a book intended as an attack on organized religion, as Young had convinced Allen to become a Deist. He then negotiated with Canadian governor Frederick Haldimand to become part of Canada but those attempts also failed. Vermont Historical Society, pp. During the Revolutionary War, Allen and his Green Mountain Boys joined forces with Colonel Benedict Arnold to capture Fort Ticonderoga on May 10, 1775. [100] Allen wrote of this homecoming that "we passed the flowing bowl, and rural felicity, sweetened with friendship, glowed in every countenance". He sold some of his Connecticut properties and began buying land farther north in the territory, which he sold at a profit as the southern settlements grew and people began to move farther north.[34]. I always dreaded his impatience and imprudence. I have seldom met with a man, possessing, in my opinion, a stronger mind, or whose mode of expression was more vehement and oratorical. A grandson, Ethan Allen Hitchcock, was a Union Army general in the American Civil War. [27], A few of the holders of Wentworth grants were from northwestern Connecticut, and some of them were related to Allen, including Remember Baker and Seth Warner. To that end, he and about 100 Boys climbed into four bateaux, and began rowing north. The Spirit of Ethan Allen III is a tour boat operating on Lake Champlain. In May, Ethan led a detachment of 100 Boys to overtake Fort St. John. [71] Following a brief visit to their families, they returned to Bennington to spread the news. There he met Mary Browson. There is no new documentation on him until late April of 1775. Joseph Allen was one of the wealthier landowners in the area by the time of his death in 1755. In the fall of 1777, British troops commanded by General John Burgoyne were advancing south from Canada towards New York along the water route of Lake Champlain, Lake George and the Hudson River. As a result of the 1770 New York Supreme Court decision invalidating the New Hampshire grants, the settlers formed the Green Mountain Boys with Allen as their colonel commander to defend their property. [134] While accounts of the return journey are not entirely consistent, Allen apparently suffered an apoplectic fit en route and was unconscious by the time they returned home. Clinton, who considered Vermont to still be a part of New York, did not want to honor the actions of the Vermont tribunals; Stark, who had custody of the men, disagreed with Clinton. [112] Between 1780 and 1783, Allen participated, along with his brother Ira, Vermont Governor Thomas Chittenden, and others, in negotiations with Frederick Haldimand, the governor of Quebec, that were ostensibly about prisoner exchanges, but were really about establishing Vermont as a new British province and gaining military protection for its residents. [86], On arrival at Falmouth, England, after a crossing under filthy conditions, Allen and the other prisoners were imprisoned in Pendennis Castle, Cornwall. Cannons captured at Fort Ticonderoga would be used during the successful Siege of Boston the following spring. Allen and the other officials planned their attack on Ticonderoga for May 10. [130][131], Allen and his family moved to Burlington in 1787, which was no longer a small frontier settlement but a small town, and much more to Allen's liking than the larger community that Bennington had become. Vermont became a state two years after Allen’s death in 1789. After their success at Fort Ticonderoga, Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys were called on for many other battles. [5] The family moved to the town of Cornwall shortly after his birth due to his father's quest for freedom of religion during the Great Awakening. By May 7, these men joined Allen and 130 Green Mountain Boys at Castle… [132] The work was not published until long after his death, and is primarily of interest to students of Transcendentalism, a movement the work foreshadows. For the next few years, history loses sight of Ethan Allen. After his father’s death, he joined the army, but it was not long before his time was up and he was back in Cornwall. His visit was highly anticipated and he was met with all the glory and honor deserved by a war hero. On 14 May, he was breveted a colonel in the Continental Army in "reward of his fortitude, firmness and zeal in the cause of his country, manifested during his long and cruel captivity, as well as on former occasions,"[93] and given military pay of $75 per month. They were very successful in the sense that they had many men sign up for the American army. January 10, 1737][4] – February 12, 1789) was a farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, lay theologian, American Revolutionary War patriot, and politician. Ticonderoga’s location made the perfect staging ground for Continental Army to initiate their first campaign during the Revolutionary War – an invasion of into the British-held province of Quebec, Canada. (The rest were eventually destroyed by a fire at the publisher's house.) Ethan did not find it until years after Young had died, at which point he fleshed it out, edited and published the book he called Reason: the Only Oracle of Man. Shortly after he was born, they moved to Cornwall. Even though Allen did not get to spend very many years with Fanny, she was truly the love of his life. The arguments were flimsy and unmeaning, and the conclusions were fastened upon the premises by mere force. Ethan Allen (January 21, 1738 [O.S. He was married twice, fathering eight children. [94], George Washington's impression of Allen[95], According to another prisoner's account, Allen wandered off after learning of his son's death. They were awakened when British sentries discovered them and began firing grapeshot at them from across the river. [96] There Allen remained while Vermont declared independence, and John Burgoyne's campaign for the Hudson River met a stumbling block near Bennington in August 1777. The Captain’s second-in-command had aroused him at the first sight of attack, and the captain was dressing in the back. The people of Cork, when they learned that the famous Ethan Allen was in port, took up a collection to provide him and his men with clothing and other supplies. At first his treatment was poor, but Allen wrote a letter, ostensibly to the Continental Congress, describing his conditions and suggesting that Congress treat the prisoners it held the same way. ", Shapiro, Darline. His business dealings included successful farming operations, one of Connecticut's early iron works, and land speculation in the Vermont territory. The trial was brief and the outcome unsurprising, as the court refused to allow the introduction of Wentworth's grants as evidence, citing their fraudulently issued nature. After his unhappy wife died in 1783, Allen married Fanny Montresor Brush Buchanan. A lack of cash, complicated by Vermont's currency problems, placed a strain on Fanny's relatively free hand on spending, which was further exacerbated by the cost of publishing Reason, and of the construction of a new home near the mouth of the Onion River. Sometime in the early 1850s, the original plaque marking Allen's grave disappeared; its original text was preserved by early war historian Benson Lossing in the 1840s. They would eventually reconcile in 1783. The work was a typical Allen polemic, but its target was religious, not political. Allen was very happy with Fanny. [102], Allen spent the next several years involved in Vermont's political and military matters. After Allen’s attempts to have Vermont become a state failed, he then unsuccessfully petitioner to … [79], When he returned from that expedition eight days later, Brigadier General Richard Montgomery had assumed command of the invasion due to Schuyler's illness. At one point, while aboard HMS Mercury, she anchored off New York, where, among other visitors, the captain entertained William Tryon; Allen reports that Tryon glanced at him without any sign of recognition, although it is likely the New York governor knew who he was. Although it was a small-scale conflict, the Battle of Fort Ticonderoga was the first American victory of the Revolutionary War, and would give the Continental Army much-needed artillery to be used in future battles. Allen went to Ticonderoga to join Schuyler, while Warner and others raised the regiment. As a young boy, Allen could quote many verses from the Bible and loved to argue their meaning with the adults who came by. She eventually remarried. They first settled in Cornwall, but moved the following year to Salisbury with their infant daughter Loraine. In Cornwall, Joseph and Mary had seven more children, all of whom survived to adulthood. By March 1774, the harsh treatment of settlers and their property prompted Tryon to increase some of the rewards to £100. | Public domain image, courtesy of Wikimedia Commons. At the outbreak of the American Revolution, he raised his force of Green Mountain Boys (organized in [92] With the financial assistance of his brother Ira, he lived comfortably, if out of action, until August 1777. By a wide margin, Seth Warner was elected to lead the regiment. During their stay in Ireland on the way back, a group of Irish men heard of the famous Ethan Allen being held on the ship, and took up a collection of clothes and supplies for him and his men. Ethan Allen was born on January 21, 1738, to Joseph and Mary Baker Allen in Litchfield, Connecticut, Shortly after birth, the family moved to the neighboring town of Cornwall. [61], Allen, shortly after Arnold's departure on the raid, decided, after his successes at the southern end of the lake, to take and hold Fort St. John himself. [33] Allen participated in some of the actions to drive away surveyors, and he also spent much time exploring the territory. He acquired grants from Wentworth to about 1,000 acres (400 ha) in Poultney and Castleton prior to the trial. A colorful, story-telling overview of the American Revolutionary War. His daughter Fanny achieved notice when she converted to Roman Catholicism and entered a convent. Although Ethan served in the French and Indian War, he did not see any action. [105], While Allen's service as a judge in Vermont was brief, he continued to ferret out Tories and report them to local Boards of Confiscation for action. In 1764, King George issued an order resolving the competing claims of New York and New Hampshire in favor of New York. In contrast, his behavior was sometimes quite flamboyant, and he maintained an interest in learning.

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